The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio

Today my heart became a void again for the third time, in my life. There’s a beauty in suffering. In what that Lacan guy called, ‘Objet petite a’ i.e., “an attainable object of desire”. It’s delusional, it’s a fake promise and a smile.

It’s something that you keep telling yourself, over and over again i.e., that it might just be attainable. But what happens in the end? You pour yourself out until the bottle of the unattainable empties you. And let me tell you, emptiness is a funny thing.

Very funny actually. Not that you just realize you dipped your toes into the mud, but also that the lotus belongs where it does.

Unrequited love is a self-assigned contract. You sign yourself into the uncertainty because you want to give yourself an oblivious certainty. An oblivious certainty that is love. Perhaps one of the most profound intoxicating immersion ever.

They say that you become sort of an artist when you’re heartbroken. I don’t know if that’s completely true, but I know that it is part of that contract.

An artist is the only one that can find solace in uncertainty, as the emptiness weeps tears of craft. A carefully, much detailed piece of possession. Memories.

Dali painted the persistence of memory, and I like that it’s lucidity presents or puts forth the certainty of dreaming. Dreams and fantasy are so immersive that it keeps the lover locked into a well, a well full of wine.

And that Wine I sip while I smile, and say goodbye.


Mind-Maps (I)

I created the following Mind-Maps to illustrate more of my thinking style in terms of condensing as well as synthesising my chain of reasoning for the concepts I either create or the existing ones I contemplate upon (& play around with)->

I. The Map for Survival

The key is to achieve homeostatic psychosomaticism- i.e., the stability between the body and the brain, and the important tool here is the power of the mind to manipulate the game of survival. If you can convince your mind that you have the power to make it out alive- you’ve won.

[Thoughts I had in the ICU bed- constructing the model for durability induced by survival instincts as the tiles on the roof kept transposing via the (magical, astonishing &.. an aporia) state of delirium. The model seemed to have worked, helped me meditate for the first time in a very long time. Near-death experiences are truly transforming- not endorsing that this model would work for everyone of course- but it seemed to have worked for me- and made me realise that it’s truly the mind that possesses all the power in a sentient- and that perhaps the mind has always been the biggest gem of all times- hence, making the manipulation of mind the biggest virtue & weapon in the history of mankind]

II. Deconstructing Philosophy

Philosophy is not a ‘way of life’- that’s perhaps the biggest myth of all.. it’s the way of rationally contemplating about the very essence of contemplation itself, along-with the inquiry into existence, reality and what possibly lies beyond i.e., the abstraction of the universe.

[Philosophy can roughly be divided into a) Axiology i.e., the scrutiny of value in theology, b) Epistemology i.e., the investigation of the essence of knowledge and, c) Metaphysics i.e., inquiry into abstraction of the universe, existence (ontology), etc.]

III. On the Phenomenology of Perception

It is the imaginative capacity of our perceptual consciousness which constructs the subjective sense of external environment perceived.

[Imagination (within the Imaginative Capacity of Perceptual/Visual Consciousness) renders (or puts together) the ‘images’ of our immediate external environment perceived. Hence, the (Real*/Actual) physical/material reality is imperceptible to the perception of a subjective sentient. What we experience, is merely a subjective constructed sense of reality. One could hence argue that our perceptual & imaginative capacities is what accounts for the ‘qualia’— “the hard problem of consciousness” (Chalmers). Philosophically illustrating—the triad between (i.e., theories or perception) Husserl-Sarte-Ponty is the key to understanding this chain of reasoning i.e., Husserlian theory of perception leading to or adopted later by Sartre & Ponty via phenomenological speculative introspection. One could also interpret this via the lens of Embodied Cognition (Varela) i.e., Neurophenemenological scrutiny of the mind-body problem (Descartes)—> Body ~ Mind (~ = influence). Broadly speaking, the ‘constructed sense of reality via perceptual consciousness’ is what contemporary thinkers would define as the ‘dream-like sense of reality’ (Joscha Bach) or as a ‘continuous hallucination/s that mark the subjective sense of reality’ (Anil Seth). Therefore, to loosely conclude, we construct our sense of reality via our imaginative capacities via perception (within consciousness)] —— [Some reflective add on(s) after a twitter dialogue– A) Perceptual Consciousness here would come off as a term under the umbrella of access consciousness (i.e., the functions that can be associated with consciousness)— the very use however would elucidate more about the essence of phenomenal consciousness. B) The key term use of perceptual consciousness * i.e., a mechanism for deciphering the enigma of the hard problem via a theory of perception with this argument in generation. C) Access & Phenomenal Consciousness are Ned Block’s terminologies that has been used within this argument– the term merely is broadly aided or ‘does justice to’—via the in-depth investigation of the perceptual (access) consciousness. Deciphering access consciousness—> Apprehension of the phenomenal consciousness. D) There’s a presumption assumed here that the material/physical reality a) exists and, b) is inaccessible—the ‘proof’ however I suppose would be illuminated via studies/experiments conducted to elaborate more the basal essence of neural interactions & the different brain-states. (I will continue to develop this of course, for now this is all I choose to share here)]

IV. The Construct of Intelligence

Intelligence is an autonomous subject’s capacity to comprehend or synthesise knowledge alongside the capacity for abstraction and furthermore to possess the ability to create unique models.

[Thoughts derived from another twitter dialogue about the C3 model for Intelligence– Intelligence is/comprises of C3- i.e., a somewhat top-down reduction of the complexity which is intelligence. I wouldn’t reduce it even* more than c3. An agent is intelligent by the virtue of being able to create models within its given environment however, the models created require a certain level of comprehensive and connectivistic capacities. I think resolution & causal reconstruction definitely plays a huge role in effectuating the C3 capacities (within one’s intellect) because it puts forth the ingredients upon through which the model is brought into existence… It would be the components/constituents. Like each component is independent however, all the components are required for the agent to be intelligent. Because an agent could have creative capacity only but that would be a waste if it’s not able to grasp the model’s meaning or level of abstraction]

V. The Triad of Psychoanalysis

I would divide Psychoanalysis or let’s say interchangeably also broadly the Psychoanalytical movement into roughly three subsets i.e., as Empirical psychoanalysis, Collective Psychoanalysis & Semantic Psychoanalysis.

[ (A) Empirical Psychoanalysis has its basis in the sciences of brain and body i.e., a biological basis that Freud heavily relied on to carefully construct the genesis of the psychoanalytic movement in 1896. (B) Collective Psychoanalysis has a psychical basis i.e., broadly a metaphysical, anthropological and psychological basis- what I think Jung introduced and conceptualised shortly after the Freudian genesis- specifically with his coinage of the term ‘Collective Unconscious’. (C) Semantic Psychoanalysis has its basis in the inquiry into the use of language or communication- Lacan’s famous quote about the unconscious being structured as a language would do justice to the basis stated here ]


Meditations of the Creator

by Sanjana Singh // June ‘21


Full of cracks, like any other mundane

The odyssey begins in seventh heaven

Creator, lost in felicity

Finds luxury, amusement and the greek euphoros

Within dry barrels, and hermaphroditic psychopathia

Oblivious, to the absolute

Seized by the highs, the solace- the solace

Impotent to let go

The warmth and the soothe

The pleasures of the barrels and the biblical “knowing”


Rising and falling

Up and down

Ania and Manos

Phantasia and reality

The modern weeknd and ye

Starboy, party monster and snowchild, escape from LA.. (TA*)

Willful pains and delusional happiness

Like the true, cynic Dionysus

Holding the lantern, looking for the honest man

Whilst creating her empire, but destructing her aplomb

Attached to another her

Afraid to let go


Accepting that she isn’t who she always was

Accepting every fibre of the Lacanian Other

Only to lose herself in the process of this chaotic odyssey

leaving in tears and sweats


And when she walks onto the chambers of the Real

She treasures her voice- so fertile, never fuzzy

Discerning the barrels that demolished her strength to persist

Discerning relishes that weakened her amour propre

Discerning yet again, the falling into an apotheosize of the fallacious kinships

The windfalls releases her from her own induced psychosis

Mind, the greatest treasure

Creativity, the ultimate ontological core

Madness, the truest virtue

Amour propre, the ultimate cure

Unlocks the meditative relic

Walking, as the odyssey continues


Gleaming at the shimmery stars of the night sky

Smiling and crying

The psyche exclaims,

Ad astra per aspera

<<to the moon>>

-Sanj//11.08.21//Explicit is implicit\\

On Cartesian Dualism, Qualia & Searle’s Chinese Room Thought Experiment

Consciousness of Shock, Victor Brauner (April, 1951)

I. Cartesian dualism entails that the body is essentially material made of matter, whose essence is extension and the mind as a non-material substance whose essence is thinking. This thinking component is non-spatial while matter occupies space and hence, body is spatial in essence. Human minds are the only substance in the physical natural world which are not mechanical and materialist wherein human beings constitute of a conscious-mind and a non-conscious physical body whose interaction pose a mind-body dualist problem to consciousness. Hence, the human mind constituters of mental parts imagination, sensations and feelings whereas the non-conscious components of the brain as part of the body constitutes of the neural networks that aid the processing of external stimuli in the brain. Therefore, it’s the difference between these characteristics that pose the very mind-body problem within certain dualist theories. 

II. Hypnagogic transcendental states of consciousness produces subtle to intense visual, auditory and even synesthetic hallucinations in human consciousness. Dualist theories have always expanded on the split between the body and soul i.e., in this case, the act of sensing vs the act of perceiving or hallucinations and delusions vs truth and reality. The dualist theoreticians have located persona i.e., our personal conscious identity within the ‘continuous mind’ as opposed to the ‘fleeting body’. Descartes’ rationale towards melancholia entails a correlation between the outer sensorial world and inner thought, and although hypnagogic mental imageries doesn’t necessarily favor objects seen with eyes, it dictates a complete disintegration between the mind and the body as the dualism persists (Meditations on First Philosophy). 

III. Qualia is the subjective conscious experience that constitutes elements of sensibility and emotivity i.e., sensible and aesthetic conscious presentations. Most reductionist materialists would reject the very existence of qualia, even though it’s merely another name for non-conceptualized experience, at least standardly (CI Lewis). Being a subjective conscious experience, qualia are only a part of consciousness as a whole i.e., qualia reside within the broader compounds of consciousness, and hence, is irreducible to physicality or materialism. Physical or materialist properties cannot be equated with a mentality, and hence it would be an unintelligible categorical mistake on the part of western scientific and analytical traditions to non-functional terms. Reductionist physicalism, however, poses a broader problem wherein the subjective aspect of the mind cannot be categorized within the objective methods of reductionist science. It would pose another hard problem for consciousness if physical theories of mind are framed without speculating the general problems of subjectivity and objectivity (Nagel). 

IV. Gilbert Ryle’s argument, famously known as “the myth of the ghost in the machine” poses a behaviorist view of the concept of mind and thus critiques Descartes’ bifurcation of a person’s life into two separate careers i.e., external and internal. His argument against this metaphor rests upon the theoretical struggles between the influence of mind and body which further pose categorical mistakes due to positing both mind and body within the same logical category. Therefore, Ryle argues that the cartesian dogma presents mind and matter’s polar opposition and rejects this dualism by establishing that physical processes may not necessarily be determined by mental acts. 

V.  Searle’s Chinese Room thought experiment concludes that programming a digital computer may make it appear to understand the language but doesn’t produce any real understanding, hence, the Turing test is inadequate. Therefore, as the whole argument depends upon strong appeals towards intuition, it only follows that the Chinese room follows a purely Syntactic i.e., symbol manipulation process as opposed to a Semantic i.e, that of an understanding one. Thus, the Chinese room argument is unconvincing to those who don’t share Searle’s intuitions as it counts be solely accepted on Searle’s expertise, due to other philosophers disagreement. However, it is true that humans follow semantic processes.

-Sanjana Singh//05.02.2021

A Sketch for Visual Hallucinations

“Thoughts were lived!” (P.)

I. The visual field becomes more concentrated on the objects existing in their realtime position i.e., x existing in its absolute essence– the anxiety unfolds the heightening of the essences of the object existing in real time. The visual field becomes cognizant of the sharpness of the objects existing within the compounds of the immediate external stimuli.

II. The melting dimensions of the immediate external reality brings forth a distorted sense of reality with no realisation of time while ascending towards the ego-loss phenomenon. The geometric cubes around the visual fields unveils an expanded sense of atom-composed reality i.e., to be able to harness reductionism in order to denounce the world being reduced to the tiny materialist particles.

III. With the geometric distortions, comes the revelation of the link-image which is the knot between the emerging imaginary and the symbolic. The dissolution of the dynamic patterns within the geometric visual field encompassed with mild auditorial hallucinations harnesses the united unconscious and the conscious sentience as a projection onto the perceived hallucination.

IV. The potency of the Open-Eye Hallucinatory state along with the Closed-Eye Hallucinatory state is able to reproduce a closely-parallel visual-mental dimension distinct from the sense of the presence within the fundamental dimension. The replication of the OPVs onto CEVs, and vice-versa produces the sense of existing within an alternate visual dimension along with a strong mental psychedelic state.

V. Ego-loss within an out-of-body experience induces the insemination of the conception of the ALL is Mind– the unity- the ultimate individuality. The dimensional perceptual awareness and sentience-sense become unified and the entire sense of sentience reduces to one eso/exoteric body.

VI. Hypnagogic hallucinations can be divided into three rough stages- a) Geometric-pattern Visuals, b) Tetris Effects (Working memory and Symbolism from Long-term memory) and, c) An amalgamation of a) and b).

-Sanjana Singh//28.01.2021

Negev Poiesis

Far from the east, in the land of avraham

the young creator lies on the ground of Negev with all her ardere, and none

The eyes scanning through the avid makhteshim,

shuts down its eyelids to experience manifested aggregation of nature.

The momentary mystical-experience unfolded four sulphurs,

mercury, aquae, air and, ignis infernalis.

In unison, the terreus parallel the dunes,

illuminating the animæ hidden underneath molecular movement.

-Sanjana Singh//22.12.2020

Messalina & Psyche’s Agōnía

strolling around the eyes fell upon Messalina,

eyes hypnotized and inquisitive falls prey to the agōnía of Valeria.

ecstatic the psyche strolled down on an odyssey towards sensualism, devotion, unrequited variety, and misery,

the empress assuaged and cherished the psyche until one midnight she gave the psyche the voluptuous gaze- and now the psyche would never be the same.

the psyche fairly cherished her, until one day she kissed her ally,

enraptured at dusk, only at dawn to find her with a bloke,

the psyche squelching the sorrow accords frēondscipe.

days go by, the bond heightens into an exquisite paradise,

Valeria caresses the psyche with warmth, visits práh to delight her intimate.


the psyche suffers eternal anxiety and misery in the course of quadrāgintā,

Melissa barely anywhere to be found, until one day the velum Valeria hoists

trecherie, trecherie- deprimere,

the psyche eschapers as an epiphany emanates- never ever lie with the licentious empress of the papacy.






The ‘Psi-Phenomenon’ of Psychic Energy- From Hans Berger to Carl Gustav Jung

Hans Berger
Hans Berger (1873 – 1941) – German Psychiatrist; Inventor of the Electroencephalogram (EEG)


Psychic Energy, according to Carl Gustav Jung, can be expressed as a form which performs psychological work either by actual or potential forces. The distinction between psychological and physical activities can be understood through these examples- psychological activities include perception, memory, sensory inputs and outputs, thinking, etc., while physical activities include the process of breathing, digestion, perspiration, etc. The invention of EEG i.e., Electroencephalogram in the broad field of clinical neurology was done by a German psychiatrist named Hans Berger in 1921. Before the late 1980s when his main clinical researches began, he pursued mathematics and astronomy and was also a disguised spiritualist and sort of a psychophysical fanatic throughout most of his life. Here I will attempt to associate and draw parallels between the lives and inventions of Hans Bergers electroencephalogram with Carl Gustav Jungs theoretical developments in the field of psychology along with their respective encounters with the ‘psi-phenomena’ or ‘psychic energy’. 

In 1892, Hans Berger encountered a strange phenomenon during his training exercise in the military. He was thrown off of the horse he was riding onto a cannon drawn horse’s path wherein he automatically inspected the end of his life but thankfully for him, the horses had halted just in time. Miles away from the incident his sister had sensed a feeling that his brother, Hans might be in some kind of danger and hence requested their father to make an instant telegram to check with Berger. After this incident, Berger was left in contemplation as he pondered whether this coincidence was perhaps mental telepathy and somehow based on the principles of natural science. Therefore, right after the completion of his military service, he returned home to Jena in order to study medicine with the sole goal of finding out the physiological basis of this psychic energyhe had encountered.

In general terms, mental telepathy can be understood as a phenomenon that extends in spatial and temporal planes wherein there is a limitation set in the consciousness for the psychicevent to be proven as the annulled space-time barrier. In Jungian notions, synchronicity is a notion that occurs in archetypal situations wherein the corresponding points are related to danger, risks, fate, etc., and are harnessed through the forms of precognition, or telepathy. An innate archetype can be defined as a pattern, wherein emotions arise in terms of sensations of fear, danger, or risk which become universally recognizable human patterns that invoke the same notions or sensations in everyone. Just like Hans Berger whose study inspired by the telepathic psychic energyled him to discover the brain mirrorfrom the brains recording of electrical currents and eventually to the human EEG, Carl Gustav Jung who had also grown up questioning the validity of telepathy later found himself developing his own unique theoretical systems that further explained to him his, and often his patients’ ‘para-psychologicaloccurrences.

In the psi-phenomenon or para-psychological phenomenon, which is often used as the terminology to describe instances like telepathic occurrences within and by the psyche i.e., the mind’s sudden awareness of impressions via the common channels of the senses like for example, the ability to perceive, to hear, to touch and of intuition. Hence, the psychicevent is not a mere result of the course of perception instead- the event perceived i.e., the perception is channeled through sensations while the focus or the object of the perception itself is the psychicevent. However, it is an event that is incomprehensible by essence as within the limitations of our physical or physiological processes, the occurrences of such events cannot be anticipated. In the case of Hans Berger, after the incidents occurrence in 1892, there seemed to be absolutely no going back from the sensations that arose in Berger that led to his instant assumption of mental telepathy which further led him to the gate of his starting point in psychophysics career. In the psychotherapeutic treatment of neuroses and psychoses, the electrical impulses were observed by Berger as occasions of heightened emotional tensions that dont necessitate from the conscious part of the mind.

Another way to explain this phenomenon, perhaps could be expanding and laying emphasis on the ‘acausal parallelism’ which in Jungian notion can be seen as an idea emerging after his use of I Ching (The Book of Changes)- a Chinese esoteric exploration into divination that is represented by the symbol of yin and yang and led Gustav Jung to further question the connection between the internal ‘psychic event’ and the external ‘outer event’. ‘Acausal Parallelism’ emphasises that A and B are independent variables yet connected in time and space i.e., they happen simultaneously without being a cause of one another, as illustrated in the I Ching of the Eastern esoteric philosophy. This is where Jung’s idea of synchronicity is formulated with his suggestion that coincidences worked in this ‘acausal’ manner. However, I would argue that a great deal of synchronicity is also rooted in ‘psychophysics’, as Jung was looking for connections between his ideas and physics- i.e., a meeting point which became clear and came to light after one of the dinner table discussions delivered from Albert Einstein at Jung’s about his theory of relativity. It was after this discussion, that Jung was convinced that both relativity of time as well as space ould be possible, which he later expanded on his work of The Interpretation of Nature and Psyche with the help of physicist Wolfgang Pauli. This collaboration was possible at the time due to the accepting nature of Wolfgang Pauli and Modern Quantum Mechanics that was emerging during 1950s. The community was ready to accept acasual effects in physical phenomena with an increasing emphasis on number of possibilities in the universe as opposed to concentration on just ‘facts’. Therefore, physicists had proposed this notion acausal events where possible based on the idea that there could also be no exchange of energy between the two physical bodies. Also, a contrasting idea was also noted by Carl Jung during his exploration of Astrology that at times an individual’s unique personal expectations were mirrored in the results- a notion that again the contemporary modern quantum physics community is starting to take as an actual possibility i.e., that an observer can have effects on an experiment merely just by the act of observing- a subjective bias. I Ching could be argued as the esoteric precursor to the idea of synchronicity whilst the nature of accepting quantum mechanics after Einstein or ‘psychophysics’ could be the reason why Jung was certain there could exist several ‘connections’ across theories when it came to ‘synchronicity’.

To conclude, the psychic energyinevitably results in the conscious realization of a psychicand peculiar event within the structure of the physical premises of the human body. While the idea was empirically approached by Hans Berger, the same idea was theoretically approached by psychoanalysts like Carl Gustav Jung, while others like Alfred Adler from Depth Psychology completely rejected the existence as well as the notion of telepathy itself based upon an assertion that the psi-phenomena is nothing except an atonement of neurotic apparatus. However, it is noted that even philosophers and polymaths, like Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Arnold Geulincx, explored the “anomalous phenomenon” of telepathy, spiritual ecstasy, and visions in depth. 


C.G. Jung ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages108-109.

Millett, D., 2001. Hans Berger: From Psychic Energy to the EEG. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 44(4), pp.522-542.

Lacanian Nucleus of Repression & The Élaboration of the ‘Prägung’

Art by Fucile Shreber Baja

Jacques Lacan, in his seminal work of The Nucleus of Repression, discusses the moment in the élaboration which is always present in an enigmatic way in analysis i.e., wherein the positive effect of interpretation in the transference episode is truly possible. Once this imaginary element becomes “non-integrated”, then the “suppressed, repressed” image arises followed by the appearance of anxiety which the subject witnesses. Lacan emphasizes the decisive or mutative value of this “fertile moment” because a right interpretation is required at that precise moment during the analysis. The subject’s desires at that particular moment fluctuate between being present and inconceivable and hence, it is the only occasion where the subject can make sense of the interpretation effectively.

Lacan illustrates the Wolfman case, wherein the subject has a character or narcissistic neurosis which makes the subject develop resistance to treatment. This theoretical dilemma was initially raised by Freud in Infantile Neurosis which is the title of the Wolfman in German. After-all, Lacan was known for interpreting Freud’s textual work in order to convey its inherent meanings and implications. The Wolfman case seems crucial in understanding the theory of trauma which Lacan uses as an example to unfold the theory of repression. He identifies the specter of repression in a traumatic event i.e., the event where the subject as a child accidentally catches the parents in a copulatory position. This issue of locating this “fertile moment” is also famously known as the topographical problem in Freudian terms. Lacan cleverly uses Freud’s estimated date of copulation, to reveal the dual symbolism of the subject’s birthday which also falls on Christmas Day. He locates the prägung i.e., the striking of repression in the subject’s anticipation of the Christmas day and the Birthday to further assert that “this anxiety-dream is the first manifestation of the traumatic significance of what a moment ago I called the imaginary break-in”. According to Freud, this prägung is located in the non-repressed unconscious. The prägung is the originating traumatic event that occurs within a non-repressed unconscious which is strictly limited to the domain of the imaginary. It reemerges during the course of the patient’s progress into a symbolic world. This first symbolic integration i.e., the prägung lets the “trauma” come right after the retroactive effect and induces a repressing action which is the detachment of the real world and the integration into the symbolic world.

Lacan states that repression only occurs to the extent that the events of the early years of the subject are in history sufficiently turbulent which in Freud’s words “it is in as much the subjective drama is integrated into a myth which has an extended, almost universal value, that the subject brings himself into being.” And that is why Infantile Neurosis is exactly the same as Psychoanalysis i.e., it plays the same role as psychoanalysis, namely, it accomplishes the reintegration of the past, and it brings into the play of symbols i.e., the prägung itself, which here only is attained through an effect that is retroactive. As a result of the development of the primary symbolic integration, the imaginary plane takes on its status as trauma. Hence, there lies no difference between this moment and the symbolic repression, except the only one which is that the subject has no one around to give him his cue, and that is how the “repression begins, having constituted its original nucleus”.

In the second part of the seminal article, Jacques Lacan asserts that the return of the repressed and repressed is one and the same thing. Repression occurs in an individualistic manner when the thought is separated from the feeling. It is the signifier that is repressed, as “nothing is ever, nothing can ever be repressed, except signifying elements. It is in Freud, the word signifier is all that is missing” (Lacan, Book VI). When the intellectual function is separated from the affective process, the signifier arises. The signifier is the primary organizing element of the unconscious. He states that every successful symbolic integration involves a sort of normal forgetting i.e., a forgetting without the return of the repressed. He connects Heideggerian notions to the “successful repression” which he claims is to be taken as a therapist’s term for “the most profound forgetting”. Lacan refers to Balint’s claim on the subject’s ego and further asserts that the ego achieves more feats when it is made to compete with itself i.e., through exercise or analysis, the analyst and the subject hold the power to “structure the ego” which will through practice become more strengthened over time and would be able to tolerate “greater excitations” because this exercise or analysis highly facilitates the subject to self-master his own ego. According to Lacan, this ego is an imaginary function of the “speaking subject” i.e., the subject succeeds the objective analysis as a result of verbal communication within the analysis- which will make the subject present itself distinctly. An example could be that of a scientist who is only a mirror image or support to the objectal scientific world, “the ego acquires the status of a mirage, as the residue, it is only one element in the objectal relations of the subject”.

In the third part of the Seminal Article, Lacan examines the procedure of therapy and the source of therapeutic action in the analysis. He identifies the essential function (which is the process of symbolic integration of the subject’s past history) as a function that relates to the super-ego wherein the analyst occupies a significant position. Lacan proceeds to trace the origins of the super-ego in the Freudian theory and illustrates that the super-ego emerged as a form of censorship, whose aim is to deceive through lying. The subject’s symbolic world is split by this agency into two parts, a) the accessible part i.e., which is recognized and as b) the inaccessible part i.e., which is forbidden. Lacan puts the super-ego within a tension which can be reduced down to what Freud explained as “purely instinctual principles”. In contrast, Lacan also entertains the idea where the unconscious of the subject is just “a schism of the symbolic system” i.e., a restriction or alienation which is influenced by the symbolic system and where the super-ego is an analogous schism as it occurs “for the subject”. He illustrates this with an example of his patient whose aversion of the Koranic law becomes lodged in his symptoms. The subject discovers the most significant relationship to the universe of symbolism when it is organized. Hence, it is when the traumatic elements are compressed in an image that has previously never been integrated- when the synthesis of the subject’s history appears, “his history is unified by the law, by his symbolic universe”, which is subjective and therefore, distinct for everyone. Lacan recognizes this trait of reducing the law as “inadmissible, unintegrable character” with this “blind, repetitive agency” as the definition of the term super-ego. Lacan also highlights Freud’s work of the Oedipus complex and claims that it is the most uniform point of intersection i.e., it is the minimum requirement in the existential sense of the term (i.e., of the individual’s personal education and tradition).

In conclusion, the moment when all the significant objects of the subject’s cycle have appeared and all his imaginary history is completed i.e., when the anxiety-provoking desires of the subject have been identified and reintegrated or when the desires which were initially present in O (innocence period) shifts to Ó (after integration into the imaginary period) and again to O (through analysis) represents a completed web of symbols – is the fundamental outcome most required by the analysis itself. Lacan ends this seminal article by suggesting that there is enigma around the adjournment of the analysis itself i.e., it is unknown when the analysis is supposed to be adjourned because it depends on “the analyst’s education in humanity”. A man usually tends to resolve conflicts in accordance with conduct or group morale which makes the man incapable of “broaching these grand themes”.


Lacan, J. (1988). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book I, Freud’s Papers on Techniques 1953-1954. W.W. Norton & Company, pp.187-199.

Lacan, J. (1988). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book VI, Desire and its Interpretation. W.W. Norton & Company.


Mundanus, Sisyphus’ Happiness


To wake up every day,

only to go back to sleep again.

then wake up again, to bathe, cook.

read, think, write.

listen to music, watch the classics.

go back to reading, thinking.

bathe, cook,

music, musings,

think, sleep.

and the same, every day.

yet, I do imagine this Sisyphus happy?

the hour of consciousness here lies in realizing the enormity of time.


this indifference must continue, however.

it laid within the depths of time in tram rides,

within the steps towards the terminus,

within the melancholia and mania of asking why and how?


nothings’ changed.

the mundane is where lies the Sisyphus, in happiness.